Cannabinoid Receptors

In the late 1980s scientists would discover the endocannabinoid system within the human body now this would lay waste to claims for decades the cannabinoids had no beneficial purpose for human consumption obesity particularly abdominal obesity and the associated cardio metabolic complications are critical areas of investigation the endocannabinoid system helps to regulate the central control of energy balance and peripheral metabolic processes both of which may contribute to cardio metabolic risk factors the endocannabinoid system or ECS influences multiple physiologic processes this intricate system modulates energy intake as well as nutrient transport metabolism and storage the ECS regulates these processes through and doggedness ligands such as an and amide and two arachidonic glycerol and the cb1 receptor cb1 receptors are located in the brain digestive tract muscle and adipose tissue integration of the central and peripheral ECS components is achieved through neuronal and hormonal signaling within the brain cb1 receptors are among the most abundant g-protein coupled receptors however in contrast to classical signaling where information travels from pre to postsynaptic neurons the ECS uses retrograde signaling the information travels from post to presynaptic neuron let’s take a closer look at this mechanism using a glutamatergic neurons reaches the axon terminal membrane depolarization triggers the release of glutamate glutamate binds to postsynaptic glutamate receptors inducing calcium channels to open during periods of intense neural activity calcium accumulates in the postsynaptic neuron this calcium buildup causes the synthesis and release of endocannabinoids from membrane lipids diffusing across the synaptic cleft the endocannabinoids bind to the cb1 receptor activating the g-protein activation influences ion flow the result suppression of presynaptic neurotransmitter release endocannabinoids are subsequently taken back into the cell and enzymatically degraded in addition to acting as neuro messengers endocannabinoids mediate Peregrine’s and autocrine signaling in adipocytes hepatocytes and other cells endocannabinoid system activity in the central nervous system regulates food intake for example ECS stimulation by hunger and fasting signals stimulates appetite and increases the palatability of food and Oh cannabinoids slow gastric emptying and Gi transit and appear to stimulate secretion of ghrelin a neuropeptide that increases appetite and food intake after eating cholecystokinin in the duodenum triggers satiety signals subsequently ECS activity is decreased through suppression of cb1 expression an increase in the adiposity hormone leptin decreases endocannabinoid levels in the hypothalamus and decreases food intake ECS regulation of peripheral metabolism influences energy balance stimulation of the ECS increases food intake and adiposity conversely blocking cb1 receptors reduces food intake and adiposity in the liver ECS stimulation can lead to lipogenesis through the activation of hepatic lipo jennings iams and increased fatty acid synthesis chronic stimulation of the ECS is associated with dis lipedema activation of cb1 receptors increases expression of srebp-1c a lipo genic transcription factor and increases fatty acid synthesis srebp-1c increases production of lipo genic enzymes acc1 and fatty acid synthase increased fatty acid synthesis can lead to production of large triglyceride rich VLDL large triglyceride rich VLDL sets the stage for the atherogenic lipid profile of small dense LDL decreased levels of a thorough protective HDL and overall increases in cholesterol and triglyceride levels adiponectin another hormone secreted by adipocytes regulates lipid and glucose metabolism adiponectin is believed to regulate fatty acid oxidation in muscle and liver thus improving insulin sensitivity cb1 receptor stimulation in adipocytes reduces adiponectin while cb1 blockade increases at a connecting synthesis metabolic this regulation leads to a constellation of symptoms including abdominal obesity after Oh Jenna kiss lip edenia hypertension insulin resistance prothrombotic state and pro-inflammatory state as basic in clinical research progresses we will continue to increase our understanding of the central and peripheral endocannabinoid system and its role in the regulation of metabolic function there you have a purple and one playing video cannabis could be mankind’s symbiotic plant until next time

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